Alopecia aerata

It’s an inflammatory disease that causes hair loss and has its cause linked to genetics, autoimmune factors, physical or emotional traumas and infections. In general, single or multiple small circular bald spots appear. However, there are rarer cases in which the loss is greater or total (universal alopecia). Most of the time, the hair grows back because there is no destruction of the hair follicle. The dermatologist, after a careful evaluation, can indicate the best treatment, which may include topical or injectable medications, to control the disease. Alopecia aerata is not contagious and there are no effective methods of prevention; however, maintaining healthy habits both physically and emotionally, like controlling stress, will always help.


Baldness, or androgenetic alopecia, is a disorder that affects both men and women. However, the incidence in males is higher.

Male Baldness

Genetically determined, this disorder is progressive. There is a typical fall pattern for man, determined by male hormones, causing the hair to strand gradually thin.

To diagnose the problem, it is necessary a clinical analysis by observation of the fall pattern and family history. The treatment consists of local application of substances that stimulate hair to grow back. Another option is the association of systemic medication, which acts to inhibit the hormonal action in the hair follicle (where the hair is born).

It is worth remembering that other causes may contribute to hair loss, among them, iron deficiency, thyroid gland changes, stress and infections. Therefore, such factors should also be investigated by the physician.

Once the treatment has been instituted, it must be continued indefinitely, as its interruption causes a rapid reversal of the condition.

Female Baldness

The subject is almost a taboo, however  female hair loss in woman is an issue that should be addressed as soon as possible. Female baldness has a genetic component and can be inherited from both sides of the family. In general, it begins to be noticed by a diffuse thinning of hair strands, more pronounced at the top of the scalp.

Unlike men, hair loss on the head’s frontal line is rare. Threads’ thinning is slow and progressive, with an increase during menopause. For half of the women affected, however, it can occur between 12 and 40 years of age. Clinically, it is known that reduction can only be seen when 30% of hair in the area has already been lost.

The first step in treatment should be a broad approach to the patient. Other factors that lead to hair loss, such as thyroid changes, iron deficiency, hormonal problems, poor food intake and use of medications that induce hair loss, must be excluded.

Use of hair lotions, medications and a good dialogue between doctor and patient is fundamental to clarify doubts and concerns. This is extremely important for a realistic orientation towards female baldness.


Dandruff is one of the symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp. It is a chronic inflammation, with periods of improvement and worsening, and causes have not yet been fully clarified. It might be genetic or linked to external factors such as cold weather, alcohol ingestion or stress. Symptoms include: oiliness desquamation, redness, itching and even hair loss.

The diagnosis is made by a dermatologist, and the treatment usually includes the use of specific shampoos and topical systemic medications.

Some that may help:

  • Wash your hair with specific shampoo every day, in short and warm showers; do not rub vigorously and rinse thoroughly
  • Do not wear hats and caps for a long time
  • Control stress, have a balanced diet and moderate consumption of alcoholic beverage
Nail ringworm

Our nails are formed by keratin, and mycosis is an infection caused by fungi that feed on this protein. In general, toenails are most affected because they keep muffled longer inside shoes. A qualified dermatologist should be consulted should any change be noticed.


Detachment: The most frequent form of ringworm. The fungus penetrates the distal portion of the nail, which detaches, peeling and becoming thick. Sometimes, however, detached nails may not be a sign of ringworm, but of traumas.

Leukonychia: Discolored or whitish surfaces may mean onset ringworm or enamel aging on the nails.

Deformities: Brittle nails that lead to deformities and may hide fungal infections.

Paronychia: Known popularly as an ash, it is caused by the same fungus that causes candidiasis. There is inflammation, pain and redness around the nail, which can become chronic and lead to loss of cuticle.

Nail mycoses are uncomfortable and treatment is slow, but there is a cure. Therapeutic options include topical systemic medications and laser therapy, which has excellent results, often dismissing the use of oral treatment. It is important to find a dermatologist and follow the guidelines carefully, using the prescribed medications for the time needed. Discontinuation of treatment over time may delay the healing process, which is naturally slow because of the nail growth rate.

Hair loss - Telogen effluvium

Hair loss is normal for the human species. We all lose hair regularly, but we must be aware of some aspects. When daily fall increases and does not regress in about 30 days, it is time to seek the help of the dermatologist.

Acute telogen effluvium: has its cause linked to events occurred three months before the beginning of the hair loss. This is because the strands of hair have a 120 day cycle, during which they prepare for the fall. Restrictive diet, childbirth, infections and stress are all triggers. What happens it that the hair loss doubles.

Chronic telogen effluvium: when laboratory tests are normal and there is no history for recent illness or stress. It is very uncomfortable for the patient, who has the feeling of being bald. But the chronic effluvium does not progress to generalized baldness, since the strands are always being replaced.

The fall / replacement can generate new strands at the scalp. At the same time, the pony tail or hair length looks thinner. Hair loss, when there is no other associated disease, happens for limited time and improves by itself. However, it is possible to stimulate hair growth and strength with vitamin compounds and, in some cases, topical medications. Schedule an appointment with a dermatologist is imperative to know if there are related diseases or nutritional deficit.

Ingrown nail

The problem occurs when part of the nail, especially in the big toe, grows toward the skin. Impact sports, which cause nail trauma, use of tight shoes, or the habit of cutting the nail corners round instead of straight can make it easier for the problem to appear.

Do not try to treat ingrown nail with home recipes. Look for a podiatrist if your fingernail tends to get stuck so it is cut properly. If the corner becomes inflamed, sore, red and swollen, it is advisable to visit a dermatologist. In simple cases, applying orthesis and topical solutions to reduce inflammation solve the problem. When the lesion is severe and has evolved into what are call pyogenic granuloma, which bleeds easily, the treatment may include antibiotics and even surgery.