Acne - Juvenile

It is a common problem that affects about 80% of adolescents. It occurs due to increased production of sebum by the sebaceous glands, which causes blackheads and pimples in regions such as the face, back and chest. It tends to improve spontaneously when the person reaches adulthood, but, if not treated in the stage of illness, sequels may occur.

Causes

Acne can be either primary or secondary. In the first, the person has a genetic predisposition to the appearance of the lesions. In the second, acne is caused by some more specific factor such as hormonal problems or medications.

Treatment

Acne treatment depends on the diagnosis of its cause, which will involve clinical and laboratory tests. The result can vary from person to person. Treatment may include topical and/or systemic therapies.

Adult Acne

When the skin is very oily, acne tends to remain, although less intense, during adulthood. In adult women who develop acne, some aspects must be observed in order for the treatment to be adequate and effective.

Causes

Excess oiliness

Through  time, the skin tends to dry out. However, for some people, oily skin persists. This might be accompanied by dilated pores and the presence of blackheads and pimples. These people have greater activity of the sebaceous glands, which justifies more oiliness.

Hormonal

When acne lesions are located in the lower facial third and neck, it is usually hormonal acne. In this case, male hormones stimulate a greater production of sebum. It is common for this type of acne to be associated with other characteristic signs, such as excessive hair, intense oiliness of the scalp and hair loss. Stress also causes acne by stimulating the glands via nervous system.

Treatments

Excess oiliness

The dermatologist acts to minimize and/or eliminate excess oiliness and its consequences. Local and systemic medications, allied to chemical peels are the best alternatives for a treatment that usually lasts between four and six months.

Hormonal

In women, before starting any treatment, the doctor must request a hormonal assessment, with laboratory tests and ovarian ultrassound. These tests will detect the dysfunction origin: ovarian or adrenal glands, which produce the male hormones. Often, laboratory tests come out as normal, that can be translated as an increased “sensitivity” to the circulating hormones themselves. To solve the problem, usually a therapy with anti-hormone male drugs, in addition to local exfoliating and skin renewing medications is applied.

Skin cancer

Skin cancer is one of the most concerning diseases nowadays due to its increasing incidence. In Brazil, according to the Brazilian Society of Dermatology, skin cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor. It accounts for 30% of the total malignant diagnoses of the disease in the country, and about 165 thousand new cases are registered every year by Inca (National Cancer Institute). The tanned body aesthetic valorization, since the 1960’s, was a determining factor for this increase. Solar radiation makes the skin less immune and, in turn, more vulnerable to cancer. The most common types and also those with the lowest mortality are basal cell carcinomas (75% of skin cancers) and squamous cell carcinomas. Melanoma is, fortunately, rarer, with an incidence of 3%, but more aggressive and more lethal.

Types

Among the various types of skin tumors, carcinomas account for the overwhelming majority of occurrences, while the most aggressive skin cancer, melanoma, accounts for about 3%. Currently, most types of cancer can be treated and cured when diagnosed early.

Basal cell carcinoma

It has low malignancy and slow evolution. It is related to sun exposure and may take months or years to turn into a lump that can bleed. Fortunately, it hardly causes metastasis (migration of cancer cells to other parts of the body), but its growth destroys tissues around it. Migration to another organ occurs by contiguity, that is, when the lesion has existed for years and has not been treated. The tumor expands and ends up reaching nearby tissues. It appears mainly on the upper third of the trunk (which includes shoulders, ears, face and edge of the scalp) in the form of a red or pink spot that does not heal, grow and bleed. More common in fair skin people who expose or often exposed themselves to the sun.

Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma can appear anywhere on the body, but is most common in areas that are exposed to solar radiation. We call solar keratosis the rough spot that arises from repeated photoexposure. However, this exposure is not its only cause: some cases are associated with chronic wounds (constant trauma to the skin / inflammation) and scars, for example, where the area has lost melanocytes and, therefore, its natural protection. It usually begins with a reddish, thick, scaly lesion that does not heal and bleed, and is more common in males. In addition, it can cause metastasis, that is, go to other organs. Within squamous cell carcinomas, there is Bowen’s disease, a specific type and considered a premature stage of SCC. It appears as a brown and / or red spot and may even be confused with psoriasis or eczema. HPV, or human papillomavirus, is one of the ways the disease may affect the genitals.

Melanoma

Melanoma is the least common type of skin cancer, but it has the worst prognosis and the highest mortality rate. It usually looks like a pin or a sign on the skin, in brownish or blackish tones, which can change color, shape or size, and also cause bleeding. It is essential to be aware of your own body and immediately seek a dermatologist if you detect any suspected injury. These lesions usually appear in areas exposed to the sun and are more common in the legs (in women), in the trunks (men) and neck and face (both sexes), but may arise in areas difficult to see by the patient. In addition, a signal considered “normal” for a layperson may be suspect for a physician. Those most at risk of developing the disease are light-skinned people, but melanoma may also appear in blacks. If there is a case of melanoma in your family you need to double your care because the chance to develop it is four times higher than the general population. Inheritance plays a central role in the development of melanoma, and relatives of patients diagnosed with the disease should undergo preventive exams regularly. The risk increases when there are cases registered in first-degree relatives. Another number: the chance of developing melanoma from an existing lesion is 30% in the general population; 70% are new lesions that have arisen spontaneously.

Symptoms

Only a qualified dermatologist can provide an accurate skin cancer diagnosis. In our clinic we perform dermatoscopy during the visit to the doctor – this will be useful to decide immediately whether the skin lesion should receive immediate care or should be removed. If a patient shows multiple signs of various characteristics, we request a digital dermatoscopy. However, it is extremely important that you know your own skin well enough to spot a suspicious lesion.

You should pay close attention to:

  • bumped shining translucent lesions of reddish, brownish, pinkish or multicolored aspect with central crusting and easy bleeding;
  • dark spots that change in color and texture, and show uneven growing borders;
  • spots or injuries that do not heal, grow in size, and cause symptoms like itching, crusting, erosion or bleeding.

Also, the so-called ABCDE rule will help you recognize skin cancer and prevent it more efficiently:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Please note that this rule does NOT apply to home skin monitoring!

Treatment

Mohs micrographic surgery is regarded as the most accurate and efficient treatment to most common skin cancers, including those that are difficult to reach (e.g. nose corners, nasal dorsum, near the lips or eyes), recurring tumors, etc. During Mohs surgery, layers of cancer-containing skin are progressively removed and the surrounding tissue is submitted to a 360-degree examination in a microscope. This ensures minimum tissue removal, maximum efficiency and good esthetic outcome. Efficacy rates are usually as high as 98 percent. In our clinic, this surgery is performed by Leticia Bueno, MD, who earned a medical degree from Campinas State University (Unicamp) and specialized in Mohs surgery at “Escola Paulista de Medicina” Medical School Dermatology Department.

It is important to note that each cancer treatment will vary from person to person. The physician will address each patient on a case-by-case basis until he/she prescribes the most suitable treatment.

Prevention

Protecting yourself against sunlight is the best way to prevent skin cancer. Below you can find the highest risk factors for skin cancer and the best ways to protect your skin against sunlight:

Highest risk factors for skin cancer:

  • fair skin (always burns, never tans)
  • warts and dark spots
  • family history of skin cancer
  • long exposure to sunlight – radiation has a cumulative effect through a person’s life

Protecting from sunlight:

  • Avoid direct exposure to sunlight and seek shade between 10am and 4pm
  • In addition to using sunscreen on your skin, wear physical protection against the sunlight (e.g. hats, T-shirts, sunglasses)
  • Use a waterproof, hypoallergenic, broad- spectrum sunscreen (UVA & UVB) with an FPS of at least 30.
  • Apply sunscreen to exposed areas of skin on a daily basis also on cloudy days. Re-apply every two hours if you sweat intensely or if you go into the water.
  • Watch closely the amount of sunscreen applied: use at least a 1-level tea spoonful on the face and three tablespoonfuls over the body.
Cellulite

Cellulite – or gynoid lipodystrophy – affects nearly 95 percent of adult women. It occurs as a result of fat deposits under the skin and causes the skin to look wavy or furrowed (the so-called “orange peel skin”). It usually affects the buttocks and thighs but can also occur in other areas such as breast, belly and arms. Although it is not a disease, cellulite makes it harder for oxygen to reach body cells and can eventually cause inflammation. Most common symptoms are tired legs and fluid retention, which can evolve to fibrosis. Cellulite aggravating factors include genetic predisposition, birth control pills, alcohol, and smoking.

Treatment

Nowadays there are many technologies to treat cellulite, which can be used in a sole or combined manner. Treatment can also include topical use products as supporting tools. Treating cellulite requires continuous physical training and a balanced diet, otherwise no skin treatment will have successful outcomes. Since it is not a disease, there is no cure for cellulite – however there are ways to improve its appearance, such as:

  • vacuum (negative pressure) treatment combined with infrared light and radio frequency technology [link]
  • high power radio frequency [link]
  • sound wave therapy [link]
  • lymphatic drainage [link]
  • vibration endermotherapy [link]
  • micro- and macro-focused ultrasound [link]
  • biostimulators [link]
Dermatitis

In a broad sense, dermatitis is a skin inflammation that causes reddish, itchy skin with blisters. Among the various types of dermatitis, the most common are:

Atopic dermatitis

Also known as atopic eczema, this is a chronic, genetic disease that occurs periodically and then clears up. It usually affects the bend of the arms and the back part of the knees. It is not contagious. The main symptoms are extremely dry skin with severe itching that can cause skin injuries from scratching. The skin turns reddish and scaly, and the more the person scratches it, the itchier it gets. Eczema may also flare as white skin spots – this should not be mistaken for mycosis and only a dermatologist is able to provide the right diagnosis.

Complications

The most common factors that can worsen atopic dermatitis are synthetic clothes (cotton and linen are the best choices to wear), low air humidity, extreme cold, and certain types of food.

Treatment

Treatment includes applying topical moisturizers to keep the skin hydrated and relieve eczema. In some cases, you can also use corticoid creams or ointments, immune-modulators or anti-allergic and probiotic pills. Avoid hot showers.

Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis or eczema is an inflammatory reaction triggered by skin exposure to an irritating or allergic agent. Symptoms will vary depending on the cause, but generally include severe itching, skin burning and small blisters. There are basically two types of contact dermatitis: eczema caused by a primary reaction-causing agent and eczema caused by allergic contact dermatitis.

Eczema caused by a primary reaction-causing agent occurs when people use a product for the first time and finds out that they are allergic to it. Reaction may vary in intensity from mild reddish skin to blisters. In general, the reaction is not severe – the person realizes the problem and ceases using the product that caused it.

Allergic contact dermatitis occurs when a person is exposed several times to same reaction-causing agent such as plants, cosmetics, medications, perfumes, hair dye and so forth. For instance, a person may use a perfume for several years and suddenly becomes allergic to it. This type of eczema can cause lesions in skin areas that were not originally exposed to the allergic agent.

Treatment

Treatment will depend on the cause, extension and severity of the problem. It includes topical use medications such as moisturizers, corticosteroids or anti-allergy pills. The affected person should seek immediate medical care for the most suitable treatment.

Seborrheic dermatitis

This is a skin inflammation that usually causes scaly patches and rash in some body parts where sebum is mostly produced such as face, eyebrows, nose corners, scalp, ears, back, and chest. Symptoms may vary from oily skin and hair to rash and scaly skin. It is not contagious. It is a temporary, common condition in newborn babies, in which case it is known as cradle cap.

Causes

Causes are not precisely known. This type of dermatitis may be caused by genetic factors or triggered by external factors such as food, stress, relative air humidity and cold.

Treatment

Before doctors start the treatment, they will search for a likely cause of the problem by investigating the patient’s history and carrying out physical examination during medical consultation. Treatment may include specific shampoos or creams, or probiotic pills. Managing stress may be suggested as the best way to mitigate the problem.

Eczema

Eczema is a dermatosis with various types of skin lesions. Acute eczema is featured by rash and small blisters that eventually burst (sub-acute phase). In chronic eczema, secretion dries up and develops into crusts and thickened skin patches. A patient does not necessarily have to go through all the disease phases before they are diagnosed with eczema. Treatment is applied according to the type of eczema.

Eczema can occur as six types of disease:

  • Atopic eczema or atopic dermatitis – affects specific body parts and causes itchy, reddish skin; it is a chronic condition and may be associated with asthma and rhinitis.
  • Contact eczema or contact dermatitis – triggered by skin contact with an allergenic agent.
  • Eczema caused by administered drugs or eczema pharmacodermia – drug reaction expressed on the skin.
  • Nummular eczema – appears as symmetric spots on the skin.
  • Stasis eczema – occurs in the legs with symmetric spots; is associated with varicose veins in lower limbs.
  • Dyshidrotic eczema or dyshidrosis – causes blisters to form on the palms of the hand and on the feet.
Aging

As years pass by, our body cells go through a decreasing process. This also affects muscles, bones, fat tissue and ligaments. This is the reason why we start showing signs of aging as we grow older, such as wrinkles and floppy skin on the face. While a young face has clear-cut contours and precisely defined volumes, an older face depicts loss of smoothness. This is the time when esthetic procedures should be taken. If they are performed by qualified professionals in a suitable fashion, these procedures will be quite helpful for a person to have a younger-looking face.

There are two types of aging that vary according to each person’s lifestyle and reflect their biological age (which not always matches this person’s chronological age, though): intrinsic (or natural) aging and extrinsic aging, mostly featured by the so-called photoaging.

Intrinsic aging results from the natural organism wearing out with no interference from external agents. Extrinsic aging is caused by skin exposure to sun radiation throughout a person’s life, as well as unhealthy habits like poor diet or smoking.

Standard procedures for aging treatment are very specific and should include information on each person’s needs to yield most natural outcomes. Thus, a dermatologist can resort to some products including, but not limited to, prescribing topical use creams and gels or performing esthetic procedures like laser and peeling, biostimulators or skin filling. Whatever procedure or product is prescribed, they will aim to rescue the patient’s young looks according to their age group.

Face proportions

Back in the 15th century, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo applied the golden ration to their pieces of art. This ratio is regarded as a divine proportion whereby one half is never identical to the other half. Based on this principle, physicians who dedicate to treating beauty as a health issue have studied and applied this concept to skin fillers and botulinum toxin.

Plastic surgeons used to apply this principle as they performed surgeries. Nowadays, we can restore and/or gain these shapes in a least invasive manner by applying a procedure that brings a person’s face as close as possible to the golden ratio.

This rule applies to all age groups, but it is important to avoid fashion trends. Each person is a unique individual and should be treated according to their own measures, values and goals.

Stretch marks (striae)

Stretch marks are caused when our skin is stretched beyond its limit. If the skin is stretched too much or too quickly, it eventually strains out and causes skin-supportive fibers such as collagen and elastin to break up in the affected body part. In women, stretch marks usually occur in the buttocks, breast, and outer thigh. In men, stretch marks will usually show on low back skin.

Stretch marks are very easy to spot, even if they are very thin, since their color and texture look different from the rest of the body. After a certain period of time, stretch marks cause the affected area to have lighter and thinner skin as compared to healthy skin. However, in their early stages stretch marks look reddish and may resemble a swollen whip mark. If you spot such a stretch mark you should know that your body is carrying out an internal scar process similar to when we get injured and your body defense system is sending a higher blood flow to the injured area.

Causes

Among the many causes to stretch marks, the main factor is related to skin elasticity. A less elastic epidermis tends to develop stretch marks. However, this does not cover all possible causes: fast body growing, short-term breast augmentation and weight gain are common risk factors to develop stretch marks in the short term. Physical exercise that leads to larger muscle mass may also cause stretch marks.

Treatment

The first step towards treatment is undergoing careful medical examination and rule out any hormone-related factors. Applying topical use collagen-renewal substances together with chemical peeling or non-ablative laser can be great choices for effective treatment. It is important to note that the affected body part may vary in size, area and skin type. Therefore, you should seek for tailored, customized assessment. Stretch marks can be prevented by means of a balanced diet, weight control, and regular physical exercise. Applying moisturizing creams on a daily basis can also be useful, as this will keep your skin moisturized and prevent its tissue from breaking out.

Folliculitis

Skin infection that originates in hair follicles is known as folliculitis. Although it is generally caused by bacteria and fungi, it can also originate from inflammation caused by a virus or ingrown body hair.

Folliculitis usually shows as a white-headed pimple around the follicle. In most cases it remains on skin level, but may occasionally itch, hurt or evolve into furunculosis or abscess in more severe cases. If the inflammation does not cure by itself, you should seek medical care and have suitable treatment to mitigate side effects such as hair loss and scars.

Herpes Simplex

Herpes simplex is an infection caused by type 1 Herpes virus homini. There are two types of this disease: type 1 affects the face and the trunk, whereas type 2 is a sexually transmitted disease and affects genital organs.

Most of the times the first contact with herpes virus happens during childhood. In this case, the virus settles down in a cervical ganglion and remains latent. Several factors can reactivate it later, such as excessive exposure to sunlight, infections, fever, physical and mental stress, or any other condition that causes a decrease in the body immune system. If you are prone to developing lip herpes, you should use lip balm whenever you expose yourself to the sun.

Symptoms

Herpes simplex shows as small blisters usually on the lips and genitals. Local skin becomes reddish and sensitive. In this phase, herpes is contagious and takes around ten days to heal.

Treatment

Prescribed treatment will vary according to the patient’s conditions, and may include oral or topical use antiviral medication. During your treatment, you should not kiss anyone (mouth herpes) or have sexual intercourse (genital herpes) until the blisters are totally healed. If this problem occurs frequently, you can ask your doctor to prescribe specific medication to make outbreaks affect you within longer time lapses.

Hyperhidrosis

Hyperhidrosis is a condition that causes excessive sweating all over the body or in specific areas such as armpits, hands, feet or face. Focal primary hyperhidrosis occurs during childhood or teenage; and does not cause sweating when the person is at rest. Generalized secondary hyperhidrosis, however, causes a person to sweat in all body parts even during sleep. This is caused by a medical condition or as a side effect to medication.

There are currently some treatments available to fight this condition, including antiperspirants, medication and botulinum toxin to stop excessive perspiration temporarily.

Melasma

Melasma is a condition that causes dark patches usually on the face. It may be related to birth control pills, pregnancy or exposure to sunlight, though no particular cause has yet been found.

Treatment includes topical use products, skin peeling, laser, and intense pulse light. Powerful photoprotection should always be used during treatment as a preventing tool against this disease.

  • Creams: most commonly used creams have hydroquinone, glycolic acid, retinoic acid, and azelaic acid.
  • Peeling: dermatologists prescribe superficial or deep skin peeling according to the patient’s diagnosis. Peeling will make the skin lighter and will act faster than topical use products.
  • Laser and pulsed light: when applied by qualified professionals, this cutting-edge treatment alternative will avoid further skin pigmentation.
Molluscum contagiosum

Molluscum contagiosum is a contagious viral infection caused by the Poxvirus (related to smallpox).  It commonly affects children and causes raised, skin-colored bumps with a dimple in the center. The skin lesions are sometimes misdiagnosed as warts.

Transmission usually occurs through physical contact. People with a weak immune system and allergic children with dry skin are more likely to develop this disease. Treatment will be prescribed after careful clinical and immunological examination, including physical removal by a qualified professional or surgical excision with scaling, curettage, cryotherapy or electrolysis.

Dark circles

Dark circles result from two concurrent factors: melanin (i.e. a skin coloring pigment) effect and poor local microcirculation. These two factors cause the skin around the eyes to darken. As the skin underneath the eyes is very thin, the network of small vessels becomes more evident. Dark circles occur more frequently in brown skinned people because they produce more melanin. Local bone structure and collagen loss also contribute to more visible dark circles.

Treatment

Depending on their nature, dark circles can be successfully treated and removed. High power pulse laser light is a very efficient therapy against dark circles as it does not imply tissue removal or local damage. In addition to that, this method stimulates the dermis to produce new collagen.

Another treatment option is applying creams or topical use medications with soothing, clearing components that will mitigate dark circles.

While at home you can apply chamomile cold compresses on your eyes. These will work both as a palliative and corrective procedure to minimize dark circles.

Body hair

The best treatment option to eliminate excessive and/or ingrown body hair (especially in the groin or armpits) is diode laser hair removal.

This method is recommended to all types of skin, from very fair skin to darker skin tones such as black and tanned. As compared to other hair removal techniques, diode laser removal is the only procedure applicable to all skin tones. It consists of delivering high energy pulses into the skin. The energy is then absorbed by the melanin (our skin color determinant pigment) underneath the hair follicle and in the hair shaft.

A laser projector shoots laser beams that vaporize and kill the hair follicle. This is a highly efficient treatment that also works for thick hair on dark skin. This procedure significantly prevents or totally ceases hair growing. Another advantage is the use of icy tips in the device, which ensures that the skin is isolated and protected, and thus scar free.

Laser beams particularly remove body hair in its active growing phase. For this reason, more sessions may be needed in order to accomplish full hair removal. Each session can last anywhere from a couple of minutes to one hour or longer. It is recommended to attend three or four sessions to permanently remove hair.

White hair contains no melanin and requires on-the-spot electrolysis to be effectively removed.

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a quite common, chronic, cyclic, non-contagious skin disorder. It is believed to originate from immune system action and the release of inflammatory substances by lymphocytes. This causes cells to build up rapidly on the skin, while the body is unable to eliminate dead cells as efficiently as it should. As a consequence, scaly, thick patches appear on the skin. Other risk factors may cause people to develop psoriasis, like family history, stress, obesity, cold weather, drinking alcohol, and smoking.

Symptoms

Symptoms include red patches on the skin with dry whitish scales; small white or dark post-lesion residual spots, dried, cracked skin; itching, sometimes bleeding, burning and pain; thick, groovy nails; and stiff joints.

Types

  • Plaque psoriasis – the most common form of psoriasis; causes dry, raised, red plaques on the skin covered with silvery scales.
  • Nail psoriasis – affects fingernails and toenails.
  • Scalp psoriasis – similar to dandruff, causes reddish patches with thick whitish-silvery scales especially after scratching.
  • Guttate psoriasis – mainly affects children and young adults and children; causes small, water-drop-shaped, scaling lesions on the trunk, arms, legs and scalp.
  • Inverse psoriasis – particularly affects more humid body parts such as armpits, groin, under the breasts and around the genitals.
  • Pustular psoriasis – can develop quickly and cause pustular patches that will heal one or two days later, by are likely to relapse for days or weeks.
  • Erythrodermic psoriasis– this least common type of psoriasis may affect the all body skin, and is triggered by severe sunburn or infections.
  • Psoriatic arthritis. In addition to inflamed skin, psoriatic arthritis causes painful, stiff joints.

Treatment

Treatment will vary according to the type of psoriasis and will depend on each person. It includes skin moisturizing, topical use medications, and monitored exposure to sunlight. Light therapy and oral medication may also be prescribed.

Keloid

Keloid results from tissue overgrowth after the skin has been injured or has developed a post-surgery scar. It may also occur on a vaccination spot or as a result of acne. Among other body parts, keloids usually affect the back, chest, and earlobes. In their early stages, keloids are soft, pink lesions but later evolve into scaly, whitish skin lesions. A keloid will not heal spontaneously and some people may be particularly more prone to developing this disorder, such as black-skinned and mixed race individuals.

Treatment

  • Corticosteroid shots with anti-inflammatory effect.
  • Cryosurgery – this will freeze the keloid and reduce its size. Local skin darkening is sometimes a side effect of this treatment.
  • Laser – this is applied to reduce skin redness, and can have quite satisfying results when associated with infiltration.
Intimate rejuvenation

Intimate rejuvenation is an increasingly popular theme in medical conferences and associations. A consistently growing joint effort from dermatologists, gynecologists and plastic surgeons has made it possible to treat female genital disorders in an effective, relatively simple manner with minor contraindications.

Several studies have referred to fractional CO2 laser as an extremely efficient technique to treat vaginal disorders. This quick, painless treatment can be performed in a doctor’s office.  It raises intravaginal temperature to stimulate collagen production, thus resulting in enhanced local muscles. It also increases local lubrication and thickens the vaginal mucosa. Urinary incontinence due to estrogen loss can be treated with fractional CO2 laser, as this will stimulate muscle contraction.

In addition to improve vaginal health, laser treatment can also be applied to fight the following conditions:

  • Urinary incontinence
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Benign or malignant tumours
  • Dyschromia
  • Vaginal atrophy
  • Vaginal dryness
Rosacea

Rosacea is a skin disorder that affects mostly women. It causes skin redness and oversensitivity in the central part of the face, particularly in dry skin. This condition tends to get worse if a person drinks alcohol, tea or coffee or undergoes emotional stress, room temperature changes among other factors. Although there is no cure for it, several treatments are currently available keep rosacea under control. A dermatologist will prescribe the most suitable treatment for each person in particular. Therapeutic action includes sunlight protection, specific soap, and topical use antibiotics. Pulse light, MicroPuse-1064 technology or peeling can be applied following medical examination depending on the disorder degree.

Daily care

  • Wash your face gently twice a day with rosacea specifically prescribed products and lukewarm water. Use your fingertips only.
  • Moisturize your skin on a daily basis.
  • Use sunscreen all through the year, as sunlight can worsen rosacea symptoms. Make sure you choose sunscreen that is not aggressive to your skin.
  • Use products that are specifically prescribed for your skin condition. People with rosacea should usually avoid cosmetics containing alcohol, camphor, fragrances, glycolic acid, lactic acid, menthol, sodium lauryl sulfate or urea.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol.
  • Make sure you test each product before you apply it on your skin.
  • Be gentle to your skin: do not rub, exfoliate or dry your face too energetically.
Small vessels

Nowadays it is possible to remove small vessels and hemangiomas in the face without resorting to injections or surgery. Most modern treatments are non-invasive and use high power pulse light, like non-ablative laser.

In this technique, the laser acts by means of a crystal that selectively destroys blood vessels in the skin. Non-ablative laser is recommended when a person wants to remove blood birthmarks such as port-wine stains, rosacea or hemangiomas. All these conditions cause the skin to be red, pink or any reddish color tone. The cause is congenital.

These skin marks develop with aging or as a result of accidents or medication. Laser is applied on the skin by means of light pulses similar to those of a camera flash. Patients will feel some burning in their skin, so anesthetic cream is applied in some cases.

Skin will turn lighter usually after the second or third session, though the number of sessions may vary from person to person. Each session will last 15-20 minutes. After each session, local skin may look a little reddish or be somewhat swollen. These reactions will be gone a few days later.

In order to undergo this treatment, the patient must have no sun-tanned skin nor be using any medicine that interacts with light. For this reason, it is important to avoid sun exposure and use sunscreen before leaving home throughout the treatment.

Viral warts

Viral warts are benign skin growths caused by viral infection in the outer skin surface or in mucosae. They are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). A wart will have different aspects according to the body part it affects.  It usually has the same color of the skin and is hard, though there are cases where it appears as a soft, flat, dark lesion.

There are several types of warts:

  • Common warts: occur most often around the nails and on fingers, toes and back of hands.
  • Plantar warts: arise mostly on the sole.
  • Flat warts: these smaller and softer warts are usually numerous (20-100 at a time).
  • Genital: also known as condylomas, these warts have become a world public health concern. They are usually small and flat, but can occur in big sizes. They can affect the vagina, genitals, womb cervix, and around the anus. They can be related to cancer in the affected area. It is important to use condoms to avoid transmission.

Transmission

Warts are directly transmitted from one person to another, though transmission can sometimes be indirect. It may take months between transmission and development (i.e. when a wart is visible to the naked eye). Genital warts are more contagious than the other types. There are people who are more prone to develop warts, particularly if their skin is subject to continuous injury like nail biting or cuticle injuries.

Treatment

Warts usually heal spontaneously in children and no treatment is required, whereas in adults they will not heal so easily. Because there is a relation between genital warts and cancer, affected adults should undergo rigorous treatment. Healing may be achieved by means of topical use lotions with salicylic acid, laser therapy sessions, cryotherapy (i.e. freezing the wart in a doctor’s office), electrosurgery (i.e. burning the wart with an electrical scalpel), and substance injection among other treatment options.

Vitiligo

Vitiligo is a condition in which one or more skin areas suffer loss of color. Although its exact cause remains unknown, this disorder can be related to autoimmune diseases. There is no cure to vitiligo. It is not contagious or causes any adverse effects to a person’s health.

As they treat vitiligo, dermatologists will attempt to prevent the lesions from affecting larger parts of the body and bring back pigmentation to the skin. Current therapies include oral medications, phototherapy, and laser treatment. If you have vitiligo, make sure you do not believe in some widely advertised magical treatments – just seek for medical advice before you start any kind of treatment.